TSAKANIN KWAKWALWA DA ZUCIYA 1

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ASALIN TUNANI - TSAKANIN KWAKWALWA DA ZUCIYA. WA KE SAMAR DA TUNANI? PART ONE


Shimfida

Dukkan godiya da kirari da jinjina su qara tabbata ga ALLAH Maduakakin sarki, Tsira da Aminci su qara tabbata ga shugabanmu Annabi Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam).

Haqiqa wannan muqala Ta ja hankalina sosai lokacin da Abdullahi Salihu Abubakar (Baban Sadik) ya fara rubuta ta A jaridar Aminiya, Sai na nemi izininsa nan a rubutata a shafina na yanar gizo, cikin yardarm ALLAH kuma ya yarje mini, ina mai qara miqa godiya ta a agare shi.


Farawa

A yau cikin yardar Allah ga mu dauke da bayani iya gwargwado kan asalin tunani a jikin dan adam. Kamar yadda mai tambaya tayi a sama, shin, daga ina ne tunani ke samuwa? Daga kwakwalwa ne ko daga zuciyar dan adam? Kamar yadda muka sani, akwai ra'ayoyi da dama kan abin da ya shafi asali da samuwar tunanin dan adam. Amma shahararru daga cikinsu su ne wadanda galibi muka sani a yau. Watau mahangar addini (musamman Musulunci da Kiristanci), da mahangar malaman kimiyyar zamanin da muke ciki, kamar yadda mai tambaya ta ambata a sama. Mahanga ta uku da zan kara ita ce mahangar al'ada dangane da asali da samuwar tunanin dan adam. Ban sani ba, watakila saboda karancin karatu, ko mahangar al'ada ta samo asali ne daga mahangar addinin musulunci, saboda tasirin addini a rayuwar malam Bahaushe. A takaice dai, wadannan su ne wadanda galibi muka sani.

To amma bincike ya nuna akwai ra'ayoyi wajen bakwai da suka sha bamban da juna wajen neman sanin da wani bangare ne dan adam ke tunani a jikinsa? Wannan shi ne sakamakon bincike na farko da za mu fara kawowa. Sannan mu dubi hakikanin halittar zuciya a bangare daya, da hakikanin halittar kwakwalwar dan adam, a daya bangaren. Bayanai kan hakikanin halittar zuciya da kwakwalwar dan adam za su zo ne ta mahangar binciken kimiyyar halitta, watau Biology. A gaba kuma mu dubi tsarin tunani ta mahangar malaman kimiyyar halitta a zamanin farko, da irin kurakuran da ke cikin bincikensu na farko sanadiyyar bayyanar sabon tsarin bincike da wannan zamani ya zo da shi. Sannan mu yi bayani kan tsarin tunani a kwakwalwa, kamar yadda malaman kimiyyar halitta na yanzu suke karantarwa, sannan mu ga ko akwai wani sabon bincike da ke nuna cewa tunani daga wani bangare yake zuwa ba daga kwakwalwar dan adam ba, ko kuma bayan kwakwalwar dan adam, shin akwai wani bangaren jikinsa da ke taimakawa wajen aiwatarwa ko samar da tunani gare shi? A karshe za mu rufe wannan bincike da bayanai masu nuna alakar sabon binciken malaman kimiyyar halittar dan adam, da mahangar addinin Musulunci kan abin da ya shafi asali da samuwar tunanin dan adam, kamar yadda mai tambaya ta bukata.

Wannan kasida ce da za ta dan yi tsawo, don haka zan gutsuttsira ta zuwa kashi-kashi, kamar yadda aka saba. Ina kuma rokon masu karatu da su yi hakuri da irin usulubin da bayanan ke zuwa; ma'ana za a ta cin karo da kalmomin Hausa masu tsauri, da wasu kalmomin turanci da zan rika tsofa su cikin bayanan, don kokarin tabbatar da abin da na fahimta, a matsayina na mai bincike kan wannan maudu'i. A halin yanzu dai ga nau'ukan ra'ayoyin da ake dasu a duniya kan abin da ya shafi asali da samuwar tunani a jikin dan adam; shin, daga kwakwalwarsa yake tunani, ko daga zuciyarsa?


Ra'ayoyi Kan Asali da Samuwar Tunanin Dan Adam

Malaman ilmin hikimar zance, watau Mandiki, kamar yadda muka sansu a harshen Larabci, sun ce dan Adam dabba ne mai yin Magana. Sabanin sauran dabbobin da Allah ya halitta wadanda ba su iya Magana, sai dai kuka, ko tsowa ko wata alama makamanciyar haka, don nuna halin da suke ciki, ko wani bakon yanayin da rayuwarsu ta samu kanta a ciki. A matsayinsa na wanda Allah ya hore wa tsarin Magana da hankali, dan Adam yana yin tunani. Kuma a galibin lokuta tunaninsa na yin kama ne da irin halin da ya samu kansa, ko yanayin da ya tsinci kansa, ko kuma irin muhallin da yake rayuwa a ciki. Dangane da haka mahangar masu bincike ta sha bamban kan daga ina dan adam yake tunani.

Mazhabar farko ita ce mahangar addinin Musulunci, wacce kai tsaye ta nuna cewa ba komai bane dan Adam face irin nau'in tunaninsa, wanda ke bubbugowa daga zuciyarsa. Wannan a tabbace yake karara a cikin Kur'ani mai girma. A wasu lokuta Allah kan yi ishara ga zuciya kai tsaye a matsayin wata ala da dan Adam ke tunani da ita. Hatta ayyukan dan Adam, inganci ko rashin ingancinsu na ta'allaka ne ga zuciyarsa. Wannan abin da Allah ya tabbatar kenan a cikin Kur'ani. Haka a cikin Hadisan Manzon Allah ma ishara ya zo kan muhimmancin zuciyar dan adam wajen tunani. Akwai shahararren Hadisi inda Manzon Allah ke tabbatar da cewa: "Idan zuciya ta gyaru, to sauran bangaren jiki ya gyaru, haka idan zuciya ta baci, gaba daya sauran gangar jiki ta baci." Bayan haka, a wasu lokuta Kur'ani kan yi ishara ga kirji don nufin matsayin zuciya wajen tunani. Wannan ya zo a cikin Suratun Naas, inda Allah ke nuna tasirin wasiwasin shedan ga zuciya. Malaman tafsiri sun nuna cewa Allah ya ambaci kiraza ne (watau jam'in kirji) a surar, don nufin gamewar wasiwasin shedan, ba wai don cewa kirjin dan Adam ne ke tasirantuwa da wasiwasin ba. Don haka, muhimmancin da Kur'ani ya baiwa zuciya ga rayuwar dan adam da ingancin ayyukansa, bai baiwa kwakwalwarsa ba, a zahiri dai. Wannan ke nuna mana cewa a mahangar Musulunci dai, tunanin dan adam ko galibinsa, na samuwa ne daga zuciyarsa.

Mazhaba ta biyu kuma ita ce mahangar addinin Kiristanci, watau Christianity. A wannan mahanga, kamar mahangar da ta gabace ta, tunani na samuwa ne daga zuciya. Wannan kuwa a bayyane yake karara a cikin littafinsu, musamman dai littafin Tsohon Alkawari, watau Old Testament. Hakan ba zai rasa alaka ba da asalin addinin, kasancewar asalinsa da na Kur'ani daya ne, in muka dauke tsawon zamani da ya bambanta su, da kuma tasirinsa a kan kowanne daga cikin littattafan biyu. A takaice dai mahangar Kiristanci kan asalin tunanin adan adam shi ne daga zuciya yake samuwa, duk da cewa Musulunci ya fi karfafa wannan ra'ayi karara, a cikin Kur'ani.

Mazhaba ta uku ita ce mahangar malaman falsafa, watau Philosophers kenan. Wadanda suke kiyasta abubuwa da hankali, ba da wahayi ba, a galibin lokuta. A wannan mazhaba sun nuna cewa tunanin dan adam na samuwa ne ta hanyar kwakwalwar dan adam, sabanin ra'ayin addinai biyu da ya gabata. Masu wannan mazhaba suka ce sun fahimci hakan ne ta hanyar tasirin kwakwalwa wajen tunani, da tasirin tunani shi kanshi a kwakwalwar dan adam, da kuma tasirin yanayi wajen tunani. Har wa yau masu wannan mazhaba suna kokarin hada alaka ne tsakanin kwakwalwa da ruhin dan adam, watau Human Soul kenan, a Turance. Wannan mazhaba dai ya samo asali ne daga masu hikima cikin Girkawa, watau Greek Philosophers. Shahararru daga cikinsu su ne Martin Heidegger, wanda ya samar da ka'idar Phenomenological Analysis, da kuma Renes Descartes, wanda ya samar da shahararriyar ka'idar Mind-body Problem, wacce ke kokarin neman alakar da ke tsakanin ruhi da jikin dan adam ko kwakwalwarsa, a kaikaice. A tunaninsu, kamar yadda mai karatu zai gani, tunanin dan adam na samuwa ne daga kwakwalwarsa, ta alaka da ruhinsa, wacce ba a iya gani.

Mazhaba ta hudu ita ce mahangar malaman kimiyyar halittar dan adam, watau Biologists ko Physiologists ko Neurologists. Wannan su ne gungun masu bincike kan halittar kwakwalwar dan adam a zahirance. Likitoci ne masu lura da tsarin jikin dan adam da yadda yake aiki, musamman kwakwalwarsa. Sun yi nazarin kwakwalwarsa, da abin da ke dauke a ciki, da muhimman bangarorin da ke cikinsa, da kuma yadda tunani, da ji, da gani, da hankaltar abubuwa ke samuwa ta hanyar wasu sinadaran halitta masu aiwatar da sadarwa tsakanin kwakwalwa da sauran bangarorin jikin dan adam. Wadannan kananan sinadaran halitta su ake kira Neurons, kuma su ne ke isar da sakon da kwakwalwa ke harbawa zuwa ga sauran bangarorin jiki, ciki har da zuciya. Bayan su akwai sinadaran halitta masu aikawa da sakon sinadaran maganadisun lantarkin sadarwa (watau Electromagnetic radiation), masu suna Neurotransmitters. Sai wadanda ke karban sako daga gare su masu suna Axons da dai sauran bangarori makamantansu. A wajen malaman kimiyyar halittar dan adam, kamar yadda muka gani, tunanin dan adam na samuwa ne ta hanyar kwakwalwarsa. A takaice ma dai suna ganin kwakwalwar dan adam ne ke sarrafa sauran bangarorin jikinsa baki daya. Wannan shi ne ra'ayin farko da suka dogara a kai. Nan gaba kadan za mu gani ko wannan ra'ayi na ci har zuwa yau.

Mazhaba ta biyar ita ce mahangar malaman fannin ilmin dabi'a da ke lura da tsarin tunani, watau Cognitive Psychology. A nasu ra'ayi suka ce tunanin dan adam na samun asali ne ta la'akari da wasu bangarorin jikinsa ko tasirinsu wajen gina tunaninsa, kafin ya aiwatar. A takaice dai, suna binciken tsarin tunanin dan adam ne ta la'akari da matsayin kwakwalwa, da kudurar haddace faruwar abubuwa ko bayanai, da koyon ilmi, da kuma tasirin harshe ko yare wajen gina tunanin dan adam. Wannan mazhaba yana da zurfi, don ya kunshi bincike kan abubuwa da yawa da suka shafi bangarorin jikin dan adam, kafin a fahimci yadda tsarin tunaninsa yake. A takaice dai, su ma ra'ayinsu shi ne, tunanin dan adam na da alaka mai karfi da kwakwalwa, ta hanyar sauran hanyoyi ko bangarorin da bayanansu suka gabata.

Mazhaba ta shida tana da alaka mai karfi wajen asali da mazhabar da ta gabata. Wannan mahanga tana binciken asalin tunanin dan adam ne ta la'akari da sha'awa da soye-soyen zuciyarsa (watau Egocentrism kenan). Wannan fanni na ilmi kuwa shi ake kira Psychoanalysis. A nasu tunani suka ce abin da ya kamata a lura da shi wajen tantance asali da nau'in tunanin dan adam shi ne bukatunsa na zuci, da abubuwan da yake sha'awa; na ci ne, ko na sha, ko bukatun rayuwa.

Sai mazhaba ta karshe, watau fannin ilmin zamantakewa da dabi'ar zuci, ko Social Psychology a harshen Turanci. A nasu bangare, suna binciken tsari da asalin tunanin dan adam ne ta hanyar tasirin da al'adunsa suke yi a rayuwarsa, da tasirin yanayin zamantakewarsa. Suka ce duk wani tunani da ke samuwa daga gare shi, sanadiyyar tasirin wadannan abubuwa ne guda biyu; tasirin al'ada, da kuma tsarin zamantakewa. A wajensu, kamar mazhabar da ta gabata, tunanin dan adam na ginuwa ne ta la'akari da tsarin al'ada da zamantakewa. Basu damu da tasirin kwakwalwa ko zuciya ba wajen tunani. Wadannan, a iya bincike na, su ne nau'ukan mahangar asalin tunanin dan adam.

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Ahmad Abdulnasir Shu'aib
Experienced Machine Learning and Web development professional. 3 years industry experience. Graduated in 2018 with a B. S.c. in PHYSICS from Bayero University Kano, Ahmad has focused his professional career almost exclusively on Machine Learning and Web development. He is the CTO at ChinikiGuard
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Youth can not know how age thinks and feels. But old men are guilty if they forget what it was to be young. ---J.K. Rowling , Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix

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